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War Time vs. Peace Time CTOs

Updated: Oct 18, 2023

War time versus peace time CTOs


In the world of technology, the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) role is critical in shaping a company's technical vision and strategy. The responsibilities and challenges faced by CTOs can vary significantly depending on whether the company is operating in a war-time or peace-time scenario (or potentially both!). This blog will explore the distinct characteristics of war-time and peace-time CTOs, examining how their roles, priorities, and approaches differ in these two contexts. It will also help you decide which is more appropriate for your company's stage.

War-Time CTO: Navigating Crisis and Turbulence

In a war-time scenario, a CTO faces critical challenges that demand swift and decisive action. This situation typically arises during times of crisis or extreme and complex change, such as legacy transformation, economic downturns, intense competition, or disruptive technological advancements. The primary focus of a wartime CTO is to steer the company through adversity and uncertainty while ensuring its survival and resilience.


The primary focus of a wartime CTO is to steer the company through adversity and uncertainty while ensuring its survival and resilience.


Crisis Management and Adaptability

War-time CTOs must be adept at crisis management, quickly identifying potential threats and formulating contingency plans. They must lead their teams through challenging times, making tough decisions and adapting to rapidly changing circumstances.

Cost Optimization and Resource Allocation

During economic turbulence, cost optimization becomes a top priority for wartime CTOs. They need to identify areas of inefficiency, optimize resources, and prioritize projects that deliver maximum value with limited resources.

Rapid Innovation and Pivoting

In the face of disruption, wartime CTOs may need to drive rapid innovation and pivot the company's technological direction. This may involve exploring new markets, adopting emerging technologies, or repurposing existing products to meet new demands.

Short-Term Goals and Execution

Wartime CTOs often focus on short-term goals that provide immediate results and sustain the company's operations. Speed and execution become critical to respond effectively to the crisis.

Legacy Transformation

A CTO overseeing a legacy transformation needs technical expertise, strategic vision, leadership, communication, project management, change management, problem-solving, resource management, risk mitigation, adaptability, and a commitment to continuous learning to successfully navigate the complex process and lead the team towards a modernized technological landscape.

Examples Of Wartime CTO Scenarios

Werner Vogels

In February 2017, AWS experienced a significant service disruption that affected several major websites and services relying on AWS infrastructure, such as Slack, Trello, and Quora. The outage was caused by human error during routine maintenance, leading to an unexpected cascade of failures. The disruption lasted several hours, severely impacting businesses and users dependent on AWS services.

As the CTO of AWS, Werner Vogels took immediate action to address the situation. He communicated transparently with AWS customers and the public, acknowledging the issue and providing regular updates on resolving it. He and his team worked tirelessly to identify the outage's root cause, implement necessary fixes, and restore services as quickly as possible.

Werner Vogels' leadership during this wartime scenario demonstrated his ability to manage crises effectively, maintain open communication, and take decisive actions to mitigate the impact of the disruption. Through this experience, AWS strengthened its infrastructure and processes to prevent similar incidents in the future, showcasing the importance of a resilient and adaptable CTO in a wartime scenario.

Mike Schroepfer

Mike Schroepfer served as the Chief Technology Officer of Facebook (now Meta Platforms) from 2013 to 2021. During his tenure, he faced several wartime scenarios related to privacy concerns and data breaches that threatened the reputation and user trust of the social media giant.

One significant war-time scenario occurred in 2018 when the Cambridge Analytica scandal came to light. It was revealed that Cambridge Analytica, a political consulting firm, had harvested data from millions of Facebook users without their consent for political purposes. The scandal led to a massive outcry over data privacy and Facebook's handling of user data.

As the CTO of Facebook, Mike Schroepfer played a pivotal role in addressing the situation head-on. He led efforts to improve data privacy controls, revamp platform policies, and enhance user data protection. He also participated in congressional hearings to address concerns and advocate for stronger privacy regulations.

Under Mike Schroepfer's guidance, Facebook undertook significant changes to its platform to rebuild user trust and enhance privacy measures. He spearheaded efforts to increase transparency and accountability, emphasizing the importance of user privacy and data security.

Abhay Parasnis

Adobe is a well-known software company that historically focused on desktop applications such as Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and Acrobat. However, with the rise of cloud computing and mobile technology, the company recognized the need to undergo a significant transformation to remain competitive and meet the market's changing demands.

As the former CTO of Adobe, Abhay Parasnis played a pivotal role in leading the company's transition to a cloud-based software-as-a-service (SaaS) model. This shift involved transforming their traditional desktop software into cloud-based subscription services: Adobe Creative Cloud and Adobe Document Cloud. The subscription-based model allowed Adobe to offer continuous updates and improvements to their software, enhancing user experience and enabling more flexible pricing options.

Under Abhay Parasnis' guidance, Adobe invested heavily in cloud infrastructure and analytics, allowing users to access their creative tools and documents from any device, collaborate more efficiently, and gain valuable insights from their usage data.

This transformation modernized Adobe's software offerings and helped the company transition from a product-focused business to a service-driven organization. As a result, Adobe experienced significant growth in customer acquisition and revenue, demonstrating the success of the legacy transformation under the leadership of its CTO, Abhay Parasnis.

These examples demonstrate the crucial role of CTOs during wartime scenarios, where they must navigate through crises, make tough decisions, and lead their teams in addressing challenges that can significantly impact their companies' operations and reputations.

Peace-Time CTO: Fostering Growth and Innovation

In contrast, a peace-time scenario allows CTOs to focus on long-term strategies, innovation, and steady growth. During periods of stability and growth, the CTO's role shifts to shaping the company's technological future, ensuring sustainable development, and fostering innovation.

Visionary Leadership and Strategy

Peace-time CTOs take on a visionary leadership role, working closely with the executive team to define long-term technological strategies aligned with the company's overall goals and vision.

Investment in Research and Development

With reduced pressure on immediate survival, peace-time CTOs can allocate resources to invest in research and development initiatives. This enables them to explore new technologies, develop innovative products, and stay ahead of the competition.

Talent Development and Team Building

In peace-time, CTOs can focus on talent development and team building. They can attract top technical talent, foster a culture of innovation, and provide opportunities for professional growth within the organization.

Scalability and Future-Proofing

Peace-time CTOs aim to ensure the company's technological infrastructure and products are scalable and future-proof. This involves strategic planning to accommodate future growth and technological advancements.


Peace-time CTOs aim to ensure the company's technological infrastructure and products are scalable and future-proof


Examples Of Peacetime CTO Scenarios

Andrew Bosworth

Andrew Bosworth serves as Meta's (formerly Facebook’s) Chief Technology Officer (CTO). As a CTO, Bosworth has been instrumental in shaping the technical direction of the social media giant. He has led efforts to enhance Facebook's infrastructure, improve user experiences, and drive innovations in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies.

Ensuring technical scalability is crucial for a company like Meta, which serves billions of users worldwide. Bosworth's strategic planning involves investing in robust infrastructure and cloud technologies to handle the immense user base and increasing demand for content and services. His focus on technical scalability allows Meta to deliver a seamless user experience, even during peak usage times.

He is known for fostering cross-functional collaboration within Meta, encouraging teams from different departments, such as engineering, product, design, and research, to work together cohesively to achieve common goals. By breaking down silos and promoting open communication, Bosworth facilitates collaboration, enabling teams to leverage their diverse expertise and insights for better outcomes.

John Roese

John Roese serves as the Global Chief Technology Officer (CTO) of Dell Technologies. He focused on fostering innovation, driving technological advancements, and positioning Dell as a leader in the digital transformation space.

He has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) initiatives to stay ahead in the rapidly evolving technology landscape. Under his leadership, Dell invested in emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, edge computing, and 5G, aiming to deliver innovative solutions to customers across various industries.

These examples demonstrate how peace-time CTO scenarios involve strategic planning and innovation to further solidify the company's position and drive sustainable growth.

How To Manage Wartime vs. Peacetime


Typically, CTOs who can manage stable organizations are not the same as those who thrive in environments of change and leading a product to transformation.


The transition between war-time and peace-time scenarios, may not be clear-cut. Companies often face periods of both turbulence and stability, requiring CTOs to strike a delicate balance between immediate needs and long-term vision.

Typically, CTOs who can manage stable organizations are not the same as those who thrive in environments of change and leading a product to transformation. A wartime CTO may have a different personality type to lead change. There may be special circumstances where both might be needed. For example, a peacetime CTO focuses on keeping the boat sailing while a wartime CTO incubates a breakthrough or a legacy transformation in parallel.

Having two CTOs (or other technical C-level roles) to handle both wartime and peacetime scenarios in parallel can be a strategic decision by a company to manage different aspects of its business and technology landscape effectively. This dual approach enables the company to balance the demands of rapid innovation and growth during peacetime with the challenges of crisis management and stability during wartime.

When Bill Gates stepped down as Chief Software Architect of Microsoft in 2006, two key figures took on significant roles: Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. Each played a crucial role in shaping Microsoft's direction and initiatives during that time.

Ray Ozzie

Role: Ray Ozzie assumed the role of Chief Software Architect after Bill Gates' departure. As the CSA, he provided technical and strategic leadership to Microsoft's software development efforts.


Cloud Computing and Windows Azure: Ozzie was instrumental in driving Microsoft's move towards cloud computing. He played a key role in developing and launching Windows Azure, Microsoft's cloud computing platform that enables developers to build, deploy, and manage applications and services on a global network of Microsoft-managed data centers.

Live Mesh: Under Ozzie's leadership, Microsoft introduced "Live Mesh," a synchronization and remote access platform allowing users to access their data and applications across multiple devices and platforms. Live Mesh laid the groundwork for Microsoft's future cloud-based services.

Software Plus Services Strategy: Ozzie emphasized combining traditional software offerings with cloud-based services, shaping Microsoft's "Software Plus Services" approach. This strategy aimed to provide a seamless experience for users across desktop applications and online services.

Craig Mundie

Role: Craig Mundie, who had been with Microsoft since 1992, was appointed Chief Research and Strategy Officer after Bill Gates' transition. In this role, he focused on the company's long-term technology and policy strategy.


Trustworthy Computing: Mundie played a significant role in Microsoft's "Trustworthy Computing" initiative, which aimed to improve the security and reliability of Microsoft's products and services. This initiative shifted the company's approach to software development, making security a top priority.

Digital Rights Management (DRM): Mundie shaped Microsoft's DRM strategy, particularly protecting intellectual property rights in the digital age. This included efforts to provide content creators with tools to control and manage digital content distribution while respecting users' rights.

Global Policy and Standards: Mundie engaged in initiatives related to global technology policy, working with governments, organizations, and standards bodies to address various technology challenges, including privacy, security, and interoperability.

It's important to note that Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie played critical roles at Microsoft, contributing to the company's strategic direction and technological innovations. Their initiatives significantly influenced Microsoft's trajectory and position as a major player in the technology industry.

So, two technical C-level leaders can focus on distinct priorities, ensuring the company remains agile, resilient, and competitive in all circumstances. Here are some scenarios where a company might choose this approach:

Rapid Innovation During Peace Time

One CTO might be designated to lead the company's technology and innovation efforts during peacetime. Their primary focus would be driving product development, adopting emerging technologies, and exploring new market opportunities. This CTO would work closely with engineering and research teams to foster a culture of continuous innovation and position the company as an industry leader.

Crisis Management and Stability During Wartime

The other CTO might handle crises and ensure business continuity during wartime scenarios. Their primary responsibility would be maintaining existing products and infrastructure's stability and security. They would work closely with operations, cybersecurity, and IT teams to mitigate risks, address vulnerabilities, and safeguard critical systems during times of uncertainty.

Examples of Dual-CTO Approach

Example 1 - Large Technology Conglomerate: A technology conglomerate operating in multiple industries might have a dual-CTO setup. One CTO would oversee developing and deploying cutting-edge technologies and disruptive innovations, driving the company's growth. The other CTO would focus on maintaining the integrity of the conglomerate's existing technology infrastructure and ensuring operational stability, such as dealing with cyber threats or supply chain disruptions.

Example 2 - E-commerce Platform: An e-commerce platform experiencing exponential growth might adopt a dual-CTO strategy. One CTO would optimize the platform's user experience, implement AI-driven personalization, and explore new ways to scale the business. The second CTO would build robust disaster recovery plans, ensure high availability, and strengthen cybersecurity measures to protect against potential attacks or data breaches.

Example 3 - Financial Institution: A financial institution with diverse digital offerings might appoint two CTOs to handle different scenarios. One CTO would lead the development of innovative financial technologies, enhancing mobile apps, and expanding digital payment solutions. The other CTO would focus on risk management, ensuring regulatory compliance, and safeguarding customer data, particularly when facing potential cyber threats or economic uncertainties.

Having two CTOs to handle both wartime and peacetime scenarios in parallel allows a company to strike a balance between driving innovation and ensuring stability. This approach can enhance the company's ability to respond to changing market conditions, secure its technology landscape, and maintain a competitive edge in the fast-paced business environment. The dual-CTO strategy enables companies to be well-prepared for growth opportunities and crises, fostering resilience and long-term success.

It should be noted that having two CTOs can potentially rock the boat. In this situation, caution and role clarity must be exercised appropriately. Often, such as in a transformation scenario, these may be "temporary" roles, and in the end, just one of them would remain in the organization.


In conclusion, the role of a CTO is dynamic and multifaceted, constantly evolving in response to the company's situation and external factors. A war-time CTO excels in crisis management, resource optimization, and rapid adaptation, while a peace-time CTO focuses on visionary leadership, innovation, and long-term growth. A successful CTO must be capable of balancing these roles and transitioning seamlessly between different scenarios to ensure the company's continued success in the ever-changing landscape of technology. Alternatively, a dual-CTO approach enables a company to balance the demands of rapid innovation and growth with crisis management and stability challenges.

About the Author

Jon White is an experienced technology leader with over 34 years of international experience in the software industry, having worked in the UK, Malaysia, Bulgaria, and Estonia. He holds a BSc (Hons) in Systems Design. He led the Skype for Windows development teams for many years (with 280 million monthly connected users), playing a pivotal role in the team's transition to Agile.

Jon has held multiple leadership positions throughout his career across various sectors, including loyalty management, internet telecoms (Skype), IT service management, real estate, and banking/financial services.

Jon is recognized for his expertise in agile software development, particularly helping organizations transform to agile ways of working (esp. Scrum), and is a specialist in technical due diligence. He is also an experienced mentor, coach, and onboarding specialist.

Over the last few years, he has completed over a hundred due diligence and assessment projects for clients, including private equity, portfolio companies, and technology companies, spanning multiple sectors. Contact Jon at


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