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Technical Due Diligence Through A Manufacturing Lens

Technical Due Diligence in Manufacturing

In manufacturing, where technology continues to reshape the industry, conducting thorough technical due diligence has become critical for businesses aiming to stay ahead of the curve. Technical due diligence involves meticulously assessing a company's technological infrastructure, processes, and systems, providing valuable insights into potential risks and opportunities.

Manufacturing Businesses, Often Characterized By Complex Production Processes And
Intricate Supply Chains, Face Unique Challenges That Necessitate A Keen
Understanding Of Their Technological Foundations

Manufacturing businesses, often characterized by complex production processes and intricate supply chains, face unique challenges that necessitate a keen understanding of their technological foundations. From assessing the efficiency of production lines to evaluating the integration of smart manufacturing solutions, technical due diligence is a powerful tool for revealing hidden inefficiencies and highlighting areas for optimization. For instance, a manufacturing firm may discover automation and robotics implementation opportunities during due diligence, streamlining operations and enhancing overall productivity.

Moreover, technical due diligence is instrumental in identifying potential risks associated with outdated technology, cybersecurity vulnerabilities, or inadequate scalability. In an era where digital transformation is revolutionizing the manufacturing sector, failing to address these issues can impede a company's ability to adapt and innovate. Real-world examples abound, such as a manufacturing company grappling with an aging IT infrastructure that hinders seamless data flow across its network, resulting in production bottlenecks.

This blog aims to underscore the pivotal role of technical due diligence in empowering manufacturing businesses to make informed decisions that align with the demands of a rapidly evolving industry.

Manufacturing Software Solutions

Software drives efficiency, agility, and innovation across the production spectrum. Manufacturing software solutions encompass a diverse array of applications tailored to meet the intricate needs of the industry, ranging from process optimization and inventory management to advanced analytics and automation. These solutions streamline day-to-day operations and empower businesses to navigate the complexities of global supply chains, regulatory compliance, and rapidly changing market demands.

From enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems that integrate various facets of production, such as procurement, finance, and human resources, to computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software facilitating precision in product design and production, manufacturing software solutions play a transformative role.

Integrating smart technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) further enhances the capabilities of these solutions, enabling predictive maintenance, real-time monitoring, and data-driven decision-making.

As manufacturing continues to embrace Industry 4.0 principles, this blog will delve into the diverse landscape of manufacturing software solutions, exploring their impact on operational efficiency, product quality, and overall competitiveness in the global market.

Here are some examples of typical systems that may be assessed for manufacturing companies:

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software

  • Integrates core business processes into a unified system.

  • Streamlines communication, enhances operational efficiency, facilitates better decision-making, and provides a comprehensive view of the entire manufacturing process, improving overall business performance.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software

  • Enables the creation, modification, and optimization of product designs in a digital format.

  • Accelerates the design process, improves accuracy, allows for easy collaboration among teams, and facilitates the visualization of complex product prototypes, leading to faster and more precise product development.

Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) Software

  • Translates CAD designs into instructions for automated machinery.

  • Enhances precision in manufacturing, reduces time and material wastage, supports complex machining operations, and facilitates seamless integration with CNC machines, optimizing the manufacturing process.

Manufacturing Execution System (MES)

  • Monitors and controls the production process on the shop floor in real-time.

  • Improves production visibility, ensures schedule adherence, enhances quality control, and provides actionable insights for continuous process improvement, resulting in increased operational efficiency.

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) Software

  • Manages the entire lifecycle of a product.

  • Enhances collaboration among cross-functional teams, ensures data integrity throughout the product lifecycle, reduces time to market, and supports regulatory compliance, resulting in streamlined product development processes.

Supply Chain Management (SCM) Software

  • Optimizes end-to-end supply chain processes.

  • Improves supply chain visibility, reduces lead times, minimizes excess inventory, and enhances overall supply chain efficiency, resulting in cost savings and improved responsiveness to market demands.

Quality Management Software (QMS):

  • Manages and automates quality processes and documentation.

  • Enhances product quality, facilitates compliance with industry regulations, supports real-time monitoring of quality metrics, and streamlines audit processes, ensuring consistently high-quality manufacturing outputs.

Predictive Maintenance Software:

  • Predicts equipment failures before they occur.

  • Minimizes unplanned downtime, reduces maintenance costs, extends equipment lifespan, and enhances overall equipment effectiveness, improving operational reliability.

Manufacturing Analytics Software:

  • Leverages data analytics to extract actionable insights from manufacturing processes.

  • Optimizes production efficiency, identifies areas for process improvement, enables data-driven decision-making, and supports continuous optimization of manufacturing strategies, contributing to enhanced overall performance and competitiveness.

The Importance Of Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 Aims To Create "Smart Factories" Where Machines, Systems, & Processes
Communicate In Real Time, Increasing Efficiency, Flexibility, & Responsiveness

Industry 4.0 represents the fourth industrial revolution, marked by integrating smart technologies into manufacturing processes to create a highly connected and automated environment. This transformative paradigm shift leverages technological advancements like the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, and automation to redefine how goods are produced. In manufacturing, Industry 4.0 aims to create "smart factories" where machines, systems, and processes communicate in real-time, leading to increased efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness.

Industry 4.0 is a game-changer for manufacturing that enhances the entire production lifecycle. Manufacturers gain unprecedented visibility into their operations through the interconnectedness of devices and systems. This connectivity extends from production lines to supply chains, allowing real-time data exchange and analysis.

Implementing sensors on machinery and products enables the collection of vast amounts of data, empowering manufacturers to make informed decisions, predict maintenance needs, and optimize production processes. The seamless integration of cyber-physical systems ensures a holistic approach to manufacturing, where digital and physical elements coalesce to create an intelligent and adaptive ecosystem.

The importance of Industry 4.0 for businesses, especially in the manufacturing sector, lies in its potential to drive innovation, improve operational efficiency, and foster competitiveness. By embracing smart manufacturing practices, companies can respond more rapidly to market changes, customize products on demand, and minimize production downtime through predictive maintenance. Furthermore, adopting Industry 4.0 principles can lead to resource optimization, reduced waste, and enhanced sustainability, aligning manufacturing practices with contemporary environmental concerns. Incorporating Industry 4.0 technologies enables manufacturers to stay agile in an ever-evolving market, creating a foundation for sustainable growth and global competitiveness.

The Rise Of Robotic Process Automation (RPA)

RPA Facilitates Seamless Communication Between Suppliers, Updates Inventory
Levels In Real-Time And Enhances Order Fulfillment Processes

The manufacturing industry has witnessed a significant surge in adopting Robotic Process Automation (RPA) in recent years, driven by the need for increased operational efficiency and agility. RPA, which involves using software robots or "bots" to automate repetitive tasks, has found extensive applications across various facets of manufacturing. One notable area is production planning and scheduling, where RPA streamlines the process by extracting and processing data from disparate sources to optimize resource utilization and enhance overall production efficiency.

In addition to production planning, RPA has been widely embraced in supply chain management within the manufacturing sector. Order processing, inventory management, and demand forecasting are automated to ensure swift and error-free operations. RPA facilitates seamless supplier communication, updates inventory levels in real-time, and enhances order fulfillment processes. By automating these critical supply chain components, manufacturers can achieve greater accuracy, reduce lead times, and respond more effectively to dynamic market demands.

The benefits of RPA in manufacturing are extensive:

  • Increased efficiency is a key advantage, as the technology accelerates routine tasks, allowing human resources to focus on more strategic and value-added activities.

  • Cost savings are realized through reduced labor hours and minimized errors.

  • The technology's capacity for improving accuracy is key to maintaining consistent product quality and complying with regulatory standards.

  • Scalability is another advantage, enabling RPA solutions to adapt to the growing demands of manufacturing operations.

  • Ultimately, RPA contributes to enhanced productivity, faster decision-making, and improved competitiveness within the manufacturing landscape.

Manufacturing Software: Technical Due Diligence

Selecting And Implementing The Right Manufacturing Software Requires A
Comprehensive Understanding Of Its Technical Capabilities, Scalability, And Alignment
With Specific Business Needs.

Adopting software solutions drives operational efficiency, innovation, and overall business success. However, selecting and implementing the right manufacturing software requires a comprehensive understanding of its technical capabilities, scalability, and alignment with specific business needs. This is where technical due diligence becomes indispensable. Technical due diligence involves systematically and thoroughly evaluating the software's architecture, codebase, security protocols, integration capabilities, and overall technical health. For manufacturing businesses, this process becomes instrumental in mitigating risks, ensuring seamless integration with existing systems, and maximizing the long-term benefits of software investments.

Technical due diligence on these software solutions delves into their underlying technologies, coding practices, data security measures, and scalability features. This proactive approach enables businesses to uncover potential technical challenges, evaluate the software's adaptability to evolving industry standards, and assess its ability to support the dynamic needs of modern manufacturing processes.

Manufacturing enterprises can make well-informed decisions through a comprehensive technical due diligence process, ensuring that the selected software meets their immediate requirements and aligns with their long-term strategic objectives.

Here are some examples of the areas assessed that relate to the manufacturing industry:

1. Supply Chain Management

  • Assess the strength and reliability of relationships with key suppliers.

  • Evaluate the efficiency of logistics and distribution networks.

  • Examine inventory control systems and practices.

2. Corporate IT (Including ERP, CRM)

  • Evaluate ERP and CRM systems' functionality, integration, and effectiveness for managing core business processes.

  • Assess the overall health of the IT infrastructure supporting manufacturing operations.

  • Examine measures in place to secure sensitive manufacturing data.

3. Manufacturing Processes and Technology

  • Inspect the condition and efficiency of manufacturing facilities.

  • Evaluate the technology stack used in manufacturing processes, including machinery and automation.

  • Assess quality control measures and systems.

  • Assess the application of Robotic Process Automation (RPA), e.g., for production planning and scheduling..

4. Integration Capabilities

  • Assess the software's compatibility with existing manufacturing systems, ensuring smooth integration without disrupting current operations.

  • Evaluate its ability to connect with other software solutions and machinery on the shop floor.

5. Technology Performance

  • Assess its performance under varying workloads to ensure consistent and reliable operation.

6. Compliance And Regulatory Alignment

  • Verify that the software complies with relevant industry standards and regulations.

  • Ensure it supports necessary certifications and can adapt to changes in compliance requirements.

7. Maintenance and Asset Management:

  • Evaluate critical manufacturing assets' condition and maintenance practices.

  • Assess the adoption of predictive maintenance technologies.

8. Support And Maintenance

  • Evaluate the software vendor's level of support and maintenance.

  • Assess the availability of updates, patches, and vendor responsiveness to technical issues.

9. Documentation And Training

  • Review the availability and comprehensiveness of technical documentation.

  • Assess the training resources provided to ensure manufacturing staff can effectively use the software.

10. Future-Proofing And Innovation

  • Assess the software's adaptability to future technological advancements.

  • Evaluate its potential for integrating emerging manufacturing technologies like IoT and AI.

11. Future Scalability and Technology Roadmap

  • Assess the company's plans for adopting new technologies and staying competitive.

  • Evaluate the scalability of manufacturing operations to accommodate future growth.

12. Cyber/Information Security & Privacy

  • Evaluate defense in depth and assess the data protection, access control, and industrial control systems security.

  • Understand the incident response, management processes, and plans in place to detect, respond to, and recover from cybersecurity incidents, including the roles and responsibilities of the incident response team.

13. Business Continuity

  • Review the risk assessment and business impact analysis.

  • Asses recovery strategies and business continuity plans, evaluating the resilience of the supply chain and understanding their impact on critical business functions and processes.

  • Determine the potential effects on an organization's financial stability, reputation, and compliance with laws.

Recent Innovations In The Manufacturing Industry

Several recent innovations have been transforming the manufacturing industry, ushering in a new era of efficiency, sustainability, and flexibility. Some notable innovations include:

Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing):

  • 3D printing technologies continue to advance, directly enabling the production of complex, customized, and intricate parts from digital models.

  • Key benefits include: Reduced material waste, faster prototyping, and the ability to create on-demand, bespoke components, enhance overall manufacturing flexibility.

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT):

  • Integration of IoT devices and sensors in manufacturing equipment and processes for real-time data collection and analysis.

  • Key benefits include: advancement of improved predictive maintenance, enhanced operational efficiency, and optimized resource utilization through data-driven decision-making.

Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0:

  • Integration of digital technologies, automation, and data exchange for smart, connected manufacturing processes.

  • Key benefits include: increased production agility, better supply chain management, and the creation of intelligent, adaptive manufacturing ecosystems.

Robotics and Automation:

  • Advances in robotics, including collaborative robots (cobots) and autonomous systems.

  • Key benefits include: increased efficiency, precision, and safety in manufacturing processes, along with the ability to automate repetitive tasks, improving overall productivity.

Advanced Robotics in Material Handling:

  • The integration of robotics in material handling systems, such as autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) and drones.

  • Key benefits include: streamlined logistics, reduced lead times, and increased accuracy in material handling, contributing to efficient warehouse and production operations.

Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR):

  • Implementation of AR and VR technologies for training, maintenance, and collaborative design in manufacturing.

  • Key benefits include: increased training efficiency, improved maintenance procedures, and enhanced collaboration among teams, especially in remote or complex environments.

Blockchain in Supply Chain:

  • Integration of blockchain for transparent and secure supply chain management. 

  • Key benefits include: improved traceability, reduced fraud, and enhanced trust in the supply chain by providing a tamper-resistant and decentralized record of transactions.

Advanced Analytics and Artificial Intelligence (AI): 

  • Integration of AI algorithms for predictive analytics, quality control, and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  • Key benefits include: enhanced decision-making, reduced defects, and improved overall operational efficiency through data-driven insights.

Risks RingStone Has Observed During Technical Due Diligence In Manufacturing

RingStone has undertaken comprehensive technical due diligence on various companies spanning different areas within the manufacturing sector. Some examples include:

  • Intelligent processes in automation, extended supply chain, and warehouse and inventory management

  • Supply chain management

  • Specialized industrial production in motor vehicle manufacturing

  • AI-powered production planning

Here are some examples of risks found during technical due diligences by RingStone’s practitioners across the manufacturing industry:

  • Weak Supply Chain Management Hampers Product Delivery: Lack of rationalized tooling and processes lead to long delivery times, production issues, and missed deadlines, impacting scalability, customer satisfaction, and brand reputation.

  • Inadequate Performance Testing: Limited performance testing, metrics, and benchmarks could lead to a negative user experience or potential production line issues (e.g., collecting data).

  • Bespoke Customer Integrations Impact Scalability: Complex customer system integrations increased onboarding times (~3 months), added maintenance overheads, and increased operational costs.

  • Missing QA Lead With Limited Quality Analysis: Lack of a dedicated QA lead, the absence of static code analysis tools (e.g., SonarCloud), minimal load and performance testing, and limited code quality metrics resulted in a lower quality product and more security vulnerabilities.

  • Disaster Recovery Plan Lacks Detail: A lightweight DR plan lacked comprehensive elaboration of processes, responsibilities, services, and restoration detailed steps, impacting business continuity.

  • Security Posture Requires Investment: The absence of regular penetration tests and mitigation of findings impacts the business's security posture.

How AI Can Benefit The Manufacturing Industry

Artificial Intelligence brings many benefits to the manufacturing industry, from operational efficiency and cost savings to enhanced user experiences for manufacturing personnel. Collectively, these applications contribute to the industry's ongoing transformation towards a more intelligent, connected, and responsive manufacturing environment.

AI Brings Many Benefits To The Manufacturing Industry, From Operational Efficiency
And Cost Savings To Enhanced User Experiences For Manufacturing Personnel 

1. Predictive Maintenance

  • Business Benefit: Reduces downtime and maintenance costs by predicting equipment failures before they occur.

  • User Benefit: Improves overall operational reliability and minimizes disruptions for manufacturing personnel.

2. Quality Control and Defect Detection

  • Business Benefit: Enhances product quality and reduces defects through real-time monitoring and analysis.

  • User Benefit: Provides manufacturing staff with higher-quality products and streamlines the inspection process.

3. Optimized Production Planning

  • Business Benefit: Improves production efficiency by analyzing historical data to optimize scheduling and resource allocation.

  • User Benefit: Enables manufacturing teams to work more efficiently, meeting production targets with optimized workflows.

4. Supply Chain Optimization

  • Business Benefit: Enhances supply chain visibility, reducing lead times and minimizing excess inventory.

  • User Benefit: Enables smoother collaboration with suppliers and ensures timely availability of materials for production.

5. Energy Management

  • Business Benefit: Optimizes energy consumption through AI-driven insights, reducing operational costs.

  • User Benefit: Supports a more sustainable manufacturing environment and potentially lowers energy-related expenses.

6. Demand Forecasting

  • Business Benefit: Improves accuracy in predicting demand and optimizes inventory levels and production schedules.

  • User Benefit: Reduces the likelihood of stockouts or overstocks, ensuring smoother workflows for manufacturing teams.

7. Collaborative Robots (Cobots):

  • Business Benefit: Increases efficiency by enabling humans and robots to collaborate.

  • User Benefit: Enhances safety for manufacturing personnel, allowing robots to handle repetitive or hazardous tasks.

8. Customization and Personalization:

  • Business Benefit: Facilitates the production of customized products in response to changing market demands.

  • User Benefit: Provides end-users personalized products and supports flexible manufacturing processes.

9. Data Analytics for Process Optimization:

  • Business Benefit: Optimizes manufacturing processes by analyzing vast datasets to identify areas for improvement.

  • User Benefit: Empowers manufacturing staff with insights to enhance overall process efficiency and product quality.

10. Augmented Reality (AR) for Training and Maintenance:

  • Business Benefit: Improves training efficiency and reduces errors through AR-guided training programs.

  • User Benefit: Enables manufacturing personnel to learn new tasks and quickly perform maintenance with increased accuracy.


Embracing Industry 4.0 Principles Facilitates Innovation, Improves Operational
Efficiency, And Fosters Competitiveness By Responding Rapidly To Market Changes  

Manufacturing businesses, often characterized by intricate production processes and supply chains, face unique challenges that necessitate a deep understanding of their technological foundations. Technical due diligence becomes a powerful tool for uncovering inefficiencies and optimizing operations, such as identifying automation opportunities that streamline processes and enhance productivity.

The importance of this diligence extends to the selection and implementation of manufacturing software solutions, which play a pivotal role in driving efficiency, agility, and innovation across the industry. Assessing aspects like architecture, codebase, integration capabilities, and scalability ensures seamless integration and long-term benefits. The examples provided, from ERP systems to predictive maintenance software, illustrate these solutions' diverse impact on operational efficiency, product quality, and global competitiveness.

This blog emphasizes the significance of Industry 4.0, representing a transformative shift toward smart factories and interconnected processes. Embracing Industry 4.0 principles facilitates innovation, improves operational efficiency, and fosters competitiveness by responding rapidly to market changes.

AI benefits the manufacturing industry by driving operational efficiency, cost savings, and enhanced user experiences. The examples provided in this blog, ranging from predictive maintenance to collaborative robots, showcase AI's transformative potential in creating a more intelligent, connected, and responsive manufacturing environment.

Adopting Robotic Process Automation (RPA) in manufacturing brings many benefits that significantly impact operational efficiency and overall competitiveness. The core advantage lies in the increased efficiency of automating routine tasks, liberating human resources to focus on strategic and value-added activities. This accelerates processes and contributes to a more agile and responsive manufacturing environment.

About The Authors

Harlan Vold has over 30 years of global technology experience.  Harlan's expertise spans multiple industries across corporations, startups, and government entities. His specialties are go-to-market execution, product management and delivery, business process optimization, engineering, agile development, infrastructure, information security, and business continuity.   

Harlan, with his 5-year tenure as Intel Corporation’s Director of Global Data Center Security and Business Continuity, brings a wealth of experience from safeguarding and streamlining manufacturing operations critical to the technology giant's core functions. 

He was pivotal in protecting the integrity and robustness of Intel's comprehensive "book, buy, build, ship" processes, providing expertise, and ensuring the complex set of technologies and workflow service availability.  His leadership ensured the continuity of Intel's sales, manufacturing, and logistics operations, directly contributing to the company's ability to deliver innovative products efficiently and reliably. 

In recent years, he has completed dozens of due diligence and assessment projects across various sectors for clients such as private equity firms, portfolio companies, and technology firms.  Contact Harlan at

Jon White is an experienced technology leader with over 34 years of international experience in the software industry, having worked in the UK, Malaysia, Bulgaria, and Estonia. He holds a BSc (Hons) in Systems Design. He led the Skype for Windows development teams for many years (with 280 million monthly connected users), playing a pivotal role in the team's transition to Agile.

Jon has held multiple leadership positions throughout his career across various sectors, including loyalty management, internet telecoms (Skype), IT service management, real estate, and banking/financial services.

Jon is recognized for his expertise in Agile software development, particularly helping organizations transform to Agile ways of working (esp. Scrum), and is a specialist in technical due diligence. He is also an experienced mentor, coach, and onboarding specialist.

Over the last few years, he has completed over a hundred due diligence and assessment projects for clients, including private equity, portfolio companies, and technology companies, spanning multiple sectors. Contact Jon at


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